SQL Server Cheat Sheet!

SQL Server Tutorials and Syntax
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Allan
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Joined: Fri Jul 05, 2019 3:42 pm

Fri Jul 05, 2019 3:50 pm

SQL Cheatsheet

DDL (Data Definition Language)

Definition: Deals with descriptions of the database schema and is used to create and modify the structure of database objects

Examples of DDL commands:
  • CREATE – is used to create the database or its objects (like table, index, function, views, store procedure and triggers).
  • DROP – is used to delete objects from the database.
  • ALTER - is used to alter the structure of the database.
  • TRUNCATE – is used to remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed.
  • COMMENT – is used to add comments to the data dictionary.
  • RENAME – is used to rename an object existing in the database.
CREATE
CREATE DATABASE database_name
CREATE TABLE (col def,…,PRIMARY KEY(col),FOREIGN KEY (col) REFERENCES table(col2))
CREATE PROCEDURE procedure_name AS sql_statement GO;
CREATE INDEX idx_city ON table_customers(field_city);
DROP INDEX idx_city ON table_customers;
CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column1, column2 FROM table_name WHERE condition;
CREATE TRIGGER [TRIGGER_NAME] [before | after] {insert | update | delete} on [table_name] [FOR/AFTER/INSTEAD OF] [INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE] AS [trigger_body]

ALTER
ADD: add a column
ALTER TABLE table_name ADD column_name column_definition;
MODIFY: change data type of column
ALTER TABLE table_name MODIFY column_name column_type;
DROP: delete a column
ALTER TABLE table_name DROP COLUMN column_name;

DROP
DROP database_name
DROP VIEW view_name;

TRUNCATE
TRUNCATE TABLE table_name;

RENAME
RENAME TABLE table_name TO new_table_name;
RENAME DATABASE database_name TO new_database_name;

EXECUTE PROCEDURE
EXEC procedure_name;


DML (Data Manipulation Language)

Definition: Deals with the manipulation of data present in database

Examples of DML:
  • SELECT – is used to retrieve data from the a database.
  • INSERT – is used to insert data into a table.
  • UPDATE – is used to update existing data within a table.
  • DELETE – is used to delete records from a database table.
SELECT
SELECT: used to select data from a database
SELECT * FROM table_name;
SELECT * FROM view_name;
DISTINCT: returns distinct values only (filters away duplicate values and returns rows of specified column)
SELECT DISTINCT column_name;
WHERE: used to filter records/rows
Where modifiers

SELECT column1, column2 FROM table_name WHERE condition;
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE condition1 AND condition2;
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE condition1 OR condition2;
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE NOT condition;
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE condition1 AND (condition2 OR condition3);
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE EXISTS (SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE condition);
WHERE exp AND|OR exp AND|OR exp…

where exp can be one of the following:

column = value
column > value
column >= value
column < value
column <= value
column BETWEEN value1 AND value2
column IN (value1,value2,…)
column NOT IN (value1,value2,…)
column LIKE value
column NOT LIKE value
ORDER BY: used to sort the result-set in ascending or descending order
SELECT * FROM table_name ORDER BY column;
SELECT * FROM table_name ORDER BY column DESC;
SELECT * FROM table_name ORDER BY column1 ASC, column2 DESC;
SELECT TOP: used to specify the number of records to return from top of table
SELECT TOP number columns_names FROM table_name WHERE condition;
SELECT TOP percent columns_names FROM table_name WHERE condition;
Not all database systems support SELECT TOP. The MySQL equivalent is the LIMIT clause
SELECT column_names FROM table_name LIMIT offset, count;
LIKE: operator used in a WHERE clause to search for a specific pattern in a column
% (percent sign) is a wildcard character that represents zero or more characters
_ (underscore) is a wildcard character that represents a single character (_ is exactly one character in the LIKE statement)
SELECT column_names FROM table_name WHERE column_name LIKE pattern;
LIKE ‘a%’ (find any values that start with “a”)
LIKE ‘%a’ (find any values that end with “a”)
LIKE ‘%or%’ (find any values that have “or” in any position)
LIKE ‘_r%’ (find any values that have “r” in the second position)
LIKE ‘a__%’ (find any values that start with “a” and are at least 3 characters in length)
LIKE ‘[a-c]%’ (find any values starting with “a”, “b”, or “c”
LIKE '%[^0-9]%' (match all strings that don't have a digit)
IN: operator that allows you to specify multiple values in a WHERE clause
essentially the IN operator is shorthand for multiple OR conditions
SELECT column_names FROM table_name WHERE column_name IN (value1, value2, …);
SELECT column_names FROM table_name WHERE column_name IN (SELECT STATEMENT);
BETWEEN: operator selects values within a given range inclusive
SELECT column_names FROM table_name WHERE column_name BETWEEN value1 AND value2;
SELECT * FROM Products WHERE (column_name BETWEEN value1 AND value2) AND NOT column_name2 IN (value3, value4);
SELECT * FROM Products WHERE column_name BETWEEN #01/07/1999# AND #03/12/1999#;
NULL: values in a field with no value
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE column_name IS NULL;
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE column_name IS NOT NULL;
AS: aliases are used to assign a temporary name to a table or column
SELECT column_name AS alias_name FROM table_name;
SELECT column_name FROM table_name AS alias_name;
SELECT column_name AS alias_name1, column_name2 AS alias_name2;
SELECT column_name1, column_name2 + ‘, ‘ + column_name3 AS alias_name;
UNION: Unions combine data into new rows
Each SELECT statement within UNION must have the same number of columns
The columns must have similar data types
The columns in each SELECT statement must also be in the same order
SELECT columns_names FROM table1 UNION SELECT column_name FROM table2;
UNION operator only selects distinct values, UNION ALL will allow duplicates
JOIN: Joins combine data into new columns
Diagrams

- INNER JOIN: returns records that have matching value in both tables
SELECT column_names FROM table1 INNER JOIN table2 ON table1.column_name=table2.column_name;
SELECT table1.column_name1, table2.column_name2, table3.column_name3 FROM ((table1 INNER JOIN table2 ON relationship) INNER JOIN table3 ON relationship);
- LEFT (OUTER) JOIN: returns all records from the left table (table1), and the matched records from the right table (table2)
SELECT column_names FROM table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.column_name=table2.column_name;
- RIGHT (OUTER) JOIN: returns all records from the right table (table2), and the matched records from the left table (table1)
SELECT column_names FROM table1 RIGHT JOIN table2 ON table1.column_name=table2.column_name;
- FULL (OUTER) JOIN: returns all records when there is a match in either left or right table
SELECT column_names FROM table1 FULL OUTER JOIN table2 ON table1.column_name=table2.column_name;
- Self JOIN: a regular join, but the table is joined with itself
SELECT column_names FROM table1 T1, table1 T2 WHERE condition;
- CROSS JOIN
Each row from 1st table joins with all the rows of 2nd table.
Example: | table_a | table_b | | ------- | ------- | | 1 | a | | 2 | b | | 3 | c |

SELECT a.num, b.word FROM table_a a CROSS JOIN table_b b;

Result: | num | word | | --- | ---- | | 1 | a | | 2 | a | | 3 | a | | 1 | b | | 2 | b | | 3 | b | | 1 | c | | 2 | c | | 3 | c |

INTERSECT: set operator which is used to return the records that two SELECT statements have in common
Generally used the same way as UNION above
SELECT columns_names FROM table1 INTERSECT SELECT column_name FROM table2;
EXCEPT: set operator used to return all the records in the first SELECT statement that are not found in the second SELECT statement
Generally used the same way as UNION above
SELECT columns_names FROM table1 EXCEPT SELECT column_name FROM table2;
ANY|ALL: operator used to check subquery conditions used within a WHERE or HAVING clauses
The ANY operator returns true if any subquery values meet the condition
The ALL operator returns true if all subquery values meet the condition
SELECT columns_names FROM table1 WHERE column_name operator (ANY|ALL) (SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE condition);
GROUP BY: statement often used with aggregate functions (COUNT, MAX, MIN, SUM, AVG) to group the result-set by one or more columns
SELECT column_name1, COUNT(column_name2) FROM table_name WHERE condition GROUP BY column_name1 ORDER BY COUNT(column_name2) DESC;
HAVING: this clause was added to SQL because the WHERE keyword could not be used with aggregate functions
SELECT COUNT(column_name1), column_name2 FROM table GROUP BY column_name2 HAVING COUNT(column_name1) > 5;
WITH: often used for retrieving hierarchical data or re-using temp result set several times in a query. Also referred to as "Common Table Expression"
WITH RECURSIVE cte AS (
SELECT c0.* FROM categories AS c0 WHERE id = 1 # Starting point
UNION ALL
SELECT c1.* FROM categories AS c1 JOIN cte ON c1.parent_category_id = cte.id
)
SELECT *
FROM cte
COUNT: returns the # of occurrences
SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT column_name);
MIN() and MAX(): returns the smallest/largest value of the selected column
SELECT MIN (column_names) FROM table_name WHERE condition;
SELECT MAX (column_names) FROM table_name WHERE condition;
AVG(): returns the average value of a numeric column
SELECT AVG (column_name) FROM table_name WHERE condition;
SUM(): returns the total sum of a numeric column
SELECT SUM (column_name) FROM table_name WHERE condition;

INSERT
Used to insert new records/rows in a table

INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2) VALUES (value1, value2);
INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1, value2 …);

UPDATE
Used to modify the existing records in a table

UPDATE table_name SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2 WHERE condition;
UPDATE table_name SET column_name = value;

DELETE
Used to delete existing records/rows in a table

DELETE FROM table_name WHERE condition;
DELETE * FROM table_name;

DCL (Data Control Language)
Definition: Deals with the rights, permissions and other controls of the database system

Examples of DCL commands:
  • GRANT-gives user’s access privileges to database.
  • REVOKE-withdraw user’s access privileges given by using the GRANT command.
GRANT
GRANT privilege_name
ON object_name {Database_name|Table_name|View_name|Dashboard_name}
TO {user_name |PUBLIC |role_name}
[WITH GRANT OPTION];
privilege_name[ALL|EXECUTE|SELECT|INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE|CREATE|ALTER|DROP]

REVOKE
REVOKE privilege_name
ON object_name {Database_name|Table_name|View_name|Dashboard_name}
FROM {user_name |PUBLIC |role_name}
Example: Revoke ALL ANSI-92 permissions (ie: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and REFERENCES) on a table for a user named anderson

REVOKE ALL ON employees FROM anderson;
Privileges types by object type
Database
ACCESS
ALL
CREATE TABLE
CREATE VIEW
CREATE DASHBOARD
DROP
DROP VIEW
DELETE DASHBOARD
SELECT, INSERT, TRUNCATE, UPDATE, DELETE
SELECT VIEW
EDIT DASHBOARD
VIEW DASHBOARD
VIEW SQL EDITOR
Table
SELECT, INSERT, TRUNCATE, UPDATE, DELETE
DROP
TRIGGER
REFERENCES
EXECUTE
View
SELECT
DROP
Dashboard
VIEW
EDIT
DELETE

TCL (Transaction Control Language)
Definition: Deals with the transaction within the database

Examples of TCL commands:
  • COMMIT– commits a Transaction.
  • ROLLBACK– rollbacks a transaction in case of any error occurs.
  • SAVEPOINT–sets a savepoint within a transaction.
  • SET TRANSACTION–specify characteristics for the transaction.
Extras
Select Random values
Src

SELECT col1 FROM tbl ORDER BY RAND() LIMIT 10;//returns 10 rows random
Load data from file to table
LOAD DATA INFILE ″filename″ INTO TABLE table
List Databases & tables structure
SHOW DATABASES|TABLES
SHOW COLUMNS FROM table
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